Trial design Three feeding regimens—centrally produced ready-to-use therapeutic food, locally produced readyto-use therapeutic food, and augmented, energy-dense, home-prepared food—were provided in a community setting for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the age group of 6–59 months in an individually randomised multicentre trial that enrolled 906 children. Foods, counselling, feeding support and treatment for mild illnesses were provided until recovery or 16 weeks.
Methods Costs were estimated for 371 children enrolled in Delhi in a semiurban location after active survey and identification, enrolment, diagnosis and treatment for mild illnesses, and finally treatment with one of the three regimens, both under the research and government setting. Direct costs were estimated for human resources using a price times quantity approach, based on their salaries and average time taken for each activity. The cost per week per child for food, medicines and other consumables was estimated based on the total expenditure over the period and children covered. Indirect costs for programme management including training, transport, non-consumables, infrastructure and equipment were estimated per week per child based on total expenditures for research study and making suitable adjustments for estimations under government setting.
Results No significant difference in costs was found across the three regimens per covered or per treated child. The average cost per treated child in the government setting was estimated at US$56 (<3500 rupees).
Conclusion Home-based management of SAM with a locally produced ready-to-use therapeutic food is feasible, acceptable, affordable and very cost-effective in terms of the disability-adjusted life years saved and gross national income per capita of the country. The treatment of SAM at home needs serious attention and integration into the existing health system, along with actions to prevent SAM.
Trial registration number NCT01705769; Pre-results.
Background: Low and middle income countries (LMICs), including India, contribute to a major proportion of low birth weight (LBW) infants globally. These infants require special care. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in hospitals is a cost effective and efficacious intervention. In institutional deliveries, the duration of facility stay is often short. In LMICs, a substantial proportion of deliveries still occur at home and access to health care services is limited. In these circumstances, a pragmatic choice may be to initiate KMC at home for LBW babies. However, evidence is lacking on benefits of community-initiated KMC (cKMC). Promoting KMC at home without an understanding of its acceptability may lead to limited success.
Methods: We conducted formative research to assess the feasibility, acceptability and adoption of cKMC with the aim of designing an intervention package for a randomised controlled trial in LBW infants in Haryana, India. Qualitative methods included 40 in-depth interviews with recently delivered women and 6 focus group discussions, two each with fathers and grandfathers, grandmothers, and community health workers. A prototype intervention package to promote cKMC was developed and tested in 28 mother-infant pairs (of them, one mother had twins), using Household (HH) trials.
Results: We found that most mothers in the community recognized that babies born small required special care. In spite of not being aware of the practice of KMC, respondents felt that creating awareness of KMC benefits will promote practice. They expressed concerns about doing KMC for long periods because mothers needed rest after delivery. However, the cultural practice of recently delivered women not expected to be doing household chores and availability of other family members were identified as enablers. HH trials provided an opportunity to test the intervention package and showed high acceptability for KMC. Most mothers perceived benefits such as weight gain and increased activity in the infant.
Conclusions: Community-initiated KMC is acceptable by mothers and adoption rates are high. Formative research is essential for developing a strategy for delivery of an intervention.
Trial registration: Trial registration number CTRI/2015/10/006267. Name of Registry: Clinical Trials Registry - India. URL of Registry: http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php Date of Registration: 15/10/2015. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 18/04/2015.
Keywords: Kangaroo mother care, Household trials, Formative research
Background: Access factors associated with maternal death are important to understand because they are considered to be an essential measure of women’s health and indicative of the performance of health care systems in any community globally. This study aimed to analyse the access risk factors linked to maternal deaths in Lundazi district of the Eastern Province of Zambia using secondary data obtained from maternal death reviews and delivery registers.
Methods: This was a case-control study with cases being recorded maternal deaths for Lundazi district (n = 100) while controls were randomly selected Lundazi District Hospital deliveries (n = 300) for the period 2010 to 2015. STATA™ (Stata Corporation, Texas, TX, USA) version 12.0 was used to analyse data. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals with associated p-values were used to analyse disparities between cases and controls while bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were done to show associations.
Results: The likelihood of experiencing maternal death was 94% less among women who completed their scheduled antenatal care visits than those who did not (OR 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01–0.27, p = < 0.001). Delayed referral associated with maternal deaths and complications were 30% (30) for cases, 12% (37) for controls and 17% (67) for both cases and controls. Long distances, unskilled deliveries were 3%, (15) for both cases and controls with 13% (13) for cases and 1% (2) for controls only.
Conclusion: Antenatal care is important in screening for pre-existing risk conditions as well as complications in early stages of pregnancy that could impact adversely during pregnancy and childbirth. Delay in seeking health care during pregnancy could be minimised if health services are brought closer to the communities to reduce on distances covered by pregnant women in Lundazi. Maternal education appears to influence antenatal health care utilisation because greater knowledge and understanding of the importance of antenatal care might increase the ability to select most appropriate service. Therefore, there is need for Lundazi District Health Office to scale up interventions that motivate women to make at least four scheduled antenatal care visits during pregnancy as recommended by the World Health Organization.